Intervenções de atividade física e educação nutricional para combater a obesidade infantil na escola: revisão sistemática

Bárbara Klasmann Serra, Fernanda Cristini Chiafitela Loch, Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho, Eduardo Mendonça Scheeren, Dilmeire Sant’Anna Ramos Vosgerau

Resumo


Introdução: A prevalência mundial de obesidade infantil tem aumentado de forma significativa nas últimas três décadas. No contexto escolar, acompanhar o estado de saúde em alunos é necessário, pois nessa fase se incorporam muitos hábitos, que geralmente perpetuam por toda a vida adulta. Objetivo: Identificar propostas de Intervenções para Promoção da Saúde no contexto escolar e analisar sua efetividade no combate a obesidade infantil. Materiais e métodos: Buscou-se os estudos publicados entre janeiro de 2012 e setembro de 2017 nas bases de dados Science Direct, Scopus e Med Line (PubMed), utilizando os termos: Phisical Education; Health Promotion; Early Intervetion; School Health. Resultados: Dos 851 artigos encontrados, 78 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão definidos previamente. A abordagem de intervenção que mais se destacou foi a social e comportamental. Das intervenções analisadas, 68% foram efetivas, 28,2% apresentaram limitações 3,8% ainda estão em andamento. Discussão: Entre as intervenções que apresentam resultados positivos, os autores salientam a importância de uma proposta a longo prazo com o envolvimento dos familiares objetivando a perpetuação dos efeitos. Conclusão: As intervenções a longo prazo com o envolvimento dos familiares obtiveram os resultados mais satisfatórios com relação a saúde dos escolares. Entretanto, para que essa contribuição se perpetue, mais estudos são necessários para fornecer uma base de evidências forte e generalizável.

 

ABSTRACT 

Physical activity interventions and nutritional education to combat childhood obesity in school: Systematic review

Introduction: The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in recent decades. In the school context, it is necessary to monitor the health status in students, because at this age many habits are incorporated, which usually perpetuate throughout adult life. Objective: Identify proposals of interventions to promote health in the school context such as analyze their effectiveness to avoid and reverse childhood obesity. Materials and methods: We searched articles published between 2010 and September 2017, in three databases Science Direct, Scopus and Med Line (PubMed). Results: Among 851 articles found, 78 met the inclusion criteria. The intervention approach that most stood out was the social and behavioral approach. Of the interventions analyzed, 68% were effective, 28.2% had limitations, and 3.8% were still in progress. Discussion: The selected interventions that shows positive results, presented longitudinal interventions with family involvement, aiming at perpetuating the effects of the intervention. Conclusion: Long-term interventions with the involvement of family members, obtained the most satisfactory results regarding the health of schoolchildren. However, for this contribution to be perpetuated, more studies are needed to provide a strong and generalizable evidence base.


Palavras-chave


Educação física; Promoção de saúde; Intervenção precoce; Saúde escolar

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